Canada became a party to MARPOL in 1993 and has since accepted and implemented the annexes on oil pollution, chemicals and packaged goods. 1.77 We recognize that there are major challenges, expectations, and environmental outcomes for ship-caused pollution, particularly given the vastness of the marine areas affected. The Department indicated that, although the United States has provided estimates of the effectiveness of MARPOL, it is not aware of any other countries that have successfully assessed the impact of MARPOL on the actual quantities of oil released intentionally or otherwise into their waters. In this context, the government needs to be more transparent and clearly communicate to Canadians the reasonable progress it expects. 1.27 In addition, the Governing Council of Canada and its secretariat are the board of directors of the federal government. .